Berbere is a reddish-brown dried spice mixture that’s synonymous with Ethiopia, but it’s used extensively in Eritrean cooking as well. The predominant ingredient is ground dried chilis, and a host of dried spices, herbs, and aromatics play supporting roles.
What it is: A dried spice mixture made from dried chilies and other spices that's used extensively in Ethiopian and Eritrean cuisines
Ingredients: Always contains dried chilies and may also contain nigella, ajwain, besobela, cardamom, coriander, fenugreek, nutmeg, cloves, cinnamon, allspice, black pepper, and salt
How to use it: As a rub or stirred into stews, sauces, legume dishes, and meat and fish dishes
What is Berbere?
Berbere has a deep, earthy flavor that can be fiery from the dried chilis. Many ingredients contribute to its complexity. Its heat level can range from moderate to quite spicy.
Traditional berbere takes days to make. According to Yohanis Gebreyesus in his book "Ethiopia: Recipes and Traditions from the Horn of Africa," Ethiopian households often make enough to last them for months.
It begins with drying chilis in the sun, then breaking them apart and pounding them. Next, wet spices (ereteb kemem) including garlic, ginger, besobela seeds, and other fresh herbs, are pounded into a paste and mixed with the chilis to form delez berbere. This is spread flat, dried, sprinkled with tej (honey wine), covered with besobela leaves, and matured for two days. Then it’s air-dried in the sun. Lastly, dry spices are toasted, mixed with the crumbled and dried delez berbere, and sent to a facility where it’s ground into a powder.
Ingredients in Berbere
Any combination of the following spices may appear in berbere. Chilis are non-negotiable, though.
- Dried chiles (New Mexico or guajillo chiles make a good substitute for the ones used in Ethiopia)
- Nigella (also known as black cumin or tikur azmud)
- Ajwain (also known as ajowan)
- Black pepper
In more streamlined versions, ground ginger, onion powder or flakes, and garlic powder replaces the fresh ginger, onions, and garlic used in the initial fresh paste of traditional berbere. Paprika may stand in for some of the dried chilis. Some recipes also include a little red wine as a substitute for the tej.
Where to Buy
You can get berbere in the spice aisle at many mainstream supermarkets. Look for it shelves with the other spices, which are often in alphabetical order.
If you have the good fortune to have an Ethiopian market in your area, make a stop there and ask them about their offerings.
How to Store
Keep berbere powder in a tightly sealed jar or bag in a cool, dark cupboard or drawer for up to a year. After that, it should still be fine to use, but its flavor won’t be as potent.
How to Make Your Own Berbere
Though traditional berbere may be a days-long project in Ethiopia, you can still make worthy versions in your own kitchen in fifteen minutes. Starting with whole spices and toasting them in a skillet helps to wake the flavors up. For those recipes, you’ll need an electric spice grinder (or a hefty mortar and pestle and a lot of patience). Some recipes call entirely for pre-ground spices.
Try our version by making the spice mix in this recipe. Here’s another recipe from an Ethiopian expat living in Portland, Oregon. Ethiopian-born celebrity chef Marcus Samuelsson’s recipe is a go-to for many who are making berbere for the first time.
You’ll notice they’re all different, which is the point. There’s no single way to make berbere, though one ingredient always required is care.
For hard-to-find spices, order from The Spice House, Kalustyans, or Brundo Spice Company.
How to Use
Heat opens up berbere’s flavor, so you want to add it to a dish as it’s cooking. It’s often used in thick or saucy foods.
Probably one of the easiest non-recipe ways to experiment with berbere is to treat it like a rub and use it on meats like chicken, beef, and lamb for grilling, roasting, or baking. Heat and salt levels in berbere can vary greatly from blend to blend, so be mindful about how much you use. Be brave and sprinkle a little on your tongue to get an idea of what you’re dealing with before you start.
In Ethiopian and Eritrean cuisine, berbere goes into stews, sauces, legume dishes, and meat and fish dishes. Doro wat is a berbere-laced dish of stewed chicken with hard-boiled eggs. Misir wat is spiced red lentils.
- Chicken Drumsticks, Ethiopian Style
- Ethiopian Doro Wat, from Marcus Samuelsson
- Misir – Easy Ethiopian Lentils, from Black Foodie
- Grilled Berbere-Spiced Lamb Chops With Cucumber-Lentil Salad, from Serious Eats